Fine Art
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artist: James Poulson

Museums in the U.S.: Individual Schools:
  • American Scene Painting
    A term used to describe scenes of typical American life painted Regionalism and Social Realism, and played a big role in New Deal art. It was first applied to the paintings of Charles Burchfield (American, 1893-1967) in the mid-1920s. Born in the aftermath of World War I, American Scene painting developed partly as an outgrowth of the Ashcan school, and partly as a reaction to French modernism. This art movement came from interest in celebrating the democratic ideals of America by promoting subject-matter accessible to the masses. A related trend was the growth of interest in creating prints for mass distribution. c.1920-c.1942. Much of this work is also included within.
  • The Art Colonies in New England
  • The Ashcan School
    (a group of early 20th century American artist, who often painted pictures of New York City life. Although they are sometimes called the New York realists, because a critic who did not appreciate their choice of subject matter i.e. alleys, tenements, and slum dwellers, gave the artists involved in this arte movement a more colorful name that's more popularly used: the "Ashcan School."  Confusingly, another label that is used for them is that of another more clearly defined group called "The Eight".  the Ascan School included these 6 members of "The Eight": Arthur B. Davies 1862-1928, Robert Henri (1865-1929), George Luks 1867-1933, William Glackens 1870-1938), John Sloan 1871-1951, and Everett Shinn (1876-1953).  Others who are considered in the Ashcan school are Alfred Maurer 1868-1932, George Wesley Bellows 1862-1925, Howard Hopper 1882-1967 and Guy Pene du Bois 1884-1958)
  • The Ashcan School
  • The American Society of Portrait Artists
  • The American Ten or "The Ten"
    (a group of American painters from New York to Boston who exhibited together from 1898-1919. they had been members of the Society of American Anrtists, but resigned from this organization upon deciding that its exhibitions were to large and conservative. Most of the Ten had studied in Paris in the 1880s and were greatly influenced by French Impressionism. The Ten were: Thomas E. Dewing 1851-1938, Edward E. Simmons 1852-1931, Juilien Alden Weir 1852-1919, JohnHenry Twachtman 1853-1902, Joseph R. De Camp 1858-1932, Willar L. Metcalf 1858-1925, Childe Hassem 1859-1935, Frank Benson 1862-1951, Robert Reid 1862-1929 and Edmund C. Tarbell 1862-1938; with William Merrit Chase 1849-1916) taking the place of Twachtman upon his death.)
  • The Eight
    (a group of American painters who united to oppose various traditions upheld by the National Academy. They exhibited together only once - in 1908, but the effect of their gesture was to strengthen the advance of modernism in the United States. the Eight includd five painters associated with the Ashcan school: Robert Hrenri 1865-1929, George Luks 1867-1933, William Glackens 1870-1938, John Sloan 1871-1951, and Everett Shinn 1876-1953, along with Maurice Prendergast 1859-1924, Ernest Lawson 1873-1939 and Arthur Bowen Davies 1862-1928.)
  • The Armory Show of 1913
    (this was the first large exhibition of modern art in America. It was held in the 69th Regiment Armory Building in New York City in 1913. Althought he show was soundly criticized by the public and the press, it had a great impact on american artists, who were influenced by the works of modern European artists.  Its major organizers were American painters Walt Kuhn 1877-1949 and Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928, along with the painter-critic Walter Pach.  Among the art exhibited were examples of Symbolism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism and Cubism, along with works by numerous American artists, including members of "The Ten", "The Eigh", Marsden Hartley, Charles Sheeler.  Among those artists whose work was seen in the U.S. for the first time were Wassily Kandinsky (Russian, 1866-1944), Pablo Picasso (spanish 1881-1973) and Marcel Duchamp (French, 1887-1968).
  • The Barbizon School
    (The Barbizon School was a group of landscape artists working in the region of the French town of Barbizon. They rejected the Academic tradition, abandoning theory in an attempt to achieve a truer representation of the countryside, and are considered to be part of the French Realist movement.. Theodore Rousseau (not to be confused with naive artist Henri Rousseau) is the best-known member of the group. Other prominent members included Charles-Francois Daubigny and Constant Troyon. Realist painters Camille Corot and Jean-Francois Millet are also sometimes loosely associated with this school..  The Barbizon School artists are often considered to have been forerunners of the Impressionists, who took a similar philosophical approach to their art.
  • Fredericksburg Artist School, TX
  • Harlem Renaissance Movement
    (A literary and art movement in the uptown Manhattan neighborhood of Harlem in the mid- and late-1920s. The community developed greatly from post-World War I emigration from the South, to become the economic, political, and cultural center of black America. The writers, painters, and sculptors of the Harlem Renaissance celebrated the cultural traditions of African-Americans. The Harlem Renaissance has also been called the "New Negro Movement" after the title of art historian Alain Locke's book "the New negro", which urged black artists to reclaim their ancestral heritage as a means of strengthening their own expression.)
  • The Hudson River School
    (The Hudson River School was a group of painters, led by Thomas Cole, who painted awesomely Romantic images of America's wilderness, in the Hudson River Valley and also in the newly opened West. The use of light effects, to dramatically portray such elements as mist and sunsets, developed into a subspecialty known as Luminism.  In addition to Cole, the best-known practioners of this style were Albert Bierstadt and Frederic Edwin Church.)
  • Fourteenth Street School
    (When more than one artist works consistently with a particular subject matter or locale and within the confines of style, the group, however small in number, is sometimes referred to as a school. Fourteenth Street school refers to the work of Kenneth Hayes Miller (American, ) and two of his students at at the Art Students League in New York City, Reginald Marsh (American, 1898-1954) and Isabel Bishop (American, 1902-1988). All three were realists in the tradition of the Italian Renaissance, Miller being closest to that tradition in the formal monumentality of his work. Marsh is perhaps furthest from it in the relentless documentation of the seamy side of life. Isabel Bishop, in contrast, observes closely but always with a warm empathy toward her subject. There is in all her work an atmosphere -- a quality of light that envelopes her subjects -- which is uniquely hers. It is not the light of the street or of the studio but it is a light that establishes an ideal environment for the artist's sympathetic investigation of the subject.)
  • Illinois Historical Art Project
    (the project has compiled histories of over 1,500 artists who meet the following criteria:
    · born before 1/1/1900. · Lived at least ½ their career in Illinois or closely attached to the state.· primarily were painters, not sculptors or printmakers.)

  • The Lyme Art Colony (Florence Griswold Museum)
  • New Deal Art Program
  • Scottsdale Artist School, AZ


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Brigitte Gastel Lloyd